Beijing Action Plan (2013-2015): Part One
The Fifth Ministerial Conference of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) was held in Beijing, China, from 19 to 20 July 2012. Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Ministers in charge of Economic Cooperation from China and 50 African countries and the Chairperson of the African Union Commission attended the conference.
1.2 The two sides applauded the active contribution FOCAC had made over the past twelve years since its inception in consolidating China-Africa traditional friendship, strengthening political mutual trust, deepening practical cooperation, enhancing exchanges and mutual learning and advancing the comprehensive development of the new type of China-Africa strategic partnership.
1.3 The two sides reviewed with satisfaction the implementation of the follow-up actions of the Fourth Ministerial Conference of FOCAC in the recent three years, and were pleased with the comprehensive and effective implementation of the Forum onChina-Africa Cooperation Sharm El Sheikh Action Plan（2010-2012）adopted at the Fourth Ministerial Conference of FOCAC in Egypt in November 2009. They reiterated their commitment to continue to view China-Africa relations from a strategic and long-term perspective and deepen the new type of China-Africa strategic partnership.
1.4 In order to implement the outcomes of the conference and chart the future course of China-Africa cooperation in all fields in the next three years, under the theme of "build on past achievements and open up new prospects for the new type of China-Africa strategic partnership", and in the spirit of the Beijing Declaration of this ministerial conference, the two sides jointly formulated and adopted with consensus this Action Plan.
- 2. POLITICAL AFFAIRS AND REGIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY
2.1 High-level Visits and Dialogue
Reaffirming the great significance of high-level exchange of visits and dialogue for promoting bilateral relations and deepening the new type of China-Africa strategic partnership, the two sides agreed to maintain the momentum of mutual visits and dialogue between Chinese and African leaders to enhance political mutual trust and expand strategic consensus.
2.2 Consultation and Cooperation Mechanisms
2.2.1 Appreciating the enriched and strengthened China-Africa dialogue mechanisms of diverse forms, the two sides agreed to improve the mechanisms, such as the bilateral joint commissions, strategic dialogues, foreign ministries' political consultations, and joint/mixed commissions on economic and trade cooperation so as to enhance the planning and guidance for the relations between China and African countries.
2.2.2 The two sides will continue to strengthen exchanges and cooperation in the United Nations and international financial institutions and on other international occasions and increase coordination and collaboration on major international and regional issues to safeguard the common interests of developing countries.
2.2.3 The two sides appreciated the smooth development of the mechanism of regular political consultation between Chinese and African Foreign Ministers and emphasized that the mechanism is very important for improving the strategic planning of China-Africa relations and enhancing communication and cooperation between the two sides on major international and regional issues. The two sides agreed to hold the third round of the political consultation in 2013 on the sidelines of the United Nations General Assembly to exchange views on major issues of common interest.
2.3 Contacts between Legislatures, Political Parties and Local Governments
2.3.1 The two sides will continue to expand the exchanges and cooperation between the National People's Congress of China on the one hand and African national parliaments and the Pan-African Parliament on the other. They will give full play to their respective strengths and influence to create a favorable environment for enhancing the traditional China-Africa friendship and promoting mutually beneficial cooperation.
2.3.2 The two sides support better understanding and broader exchanges and cooperation between the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and the China Economic and Social Council on the Chinese side and the Union of Economic and Social Councils and Similar Institutions of Africa, the economic and social councils and other similar institutions in African countries on the African side, with a view to furthering the relations between the two sides in this regard.
2.3.3 The two sides will continue to expand the scope and diversify the forms of exchanges between political parties, deepen political dialogue, consolidate political mutual trust, enhance experience sharing on governance and national development and promote practical cooperation.
2.3.4 The two sides will further promote exchanges and cooperation between local governments. They have decided to hold a China-Africa forum on cooperation between local governments at an appropriate time, and will actively support the establishment of sister province/city relationships between the two sides.
2.4 Consular and Judicial Cooperation
2.4.1 The two sides will strengthen consular cooperation and carry out consultations on consular matters in order to create more favorable conditions for personnel exchanges, and will continue to work together to fight illegal immigration.
2.4.2 The two sides will take concrete and necessary measures to protect the life, property, assets as well as rights and interests of the people and businesses from each side.
2.4.3 The two sides will promote exchanges and cooperation in the judicial, law enforcement and legislative fields, including preventing and fighting transnational organized crimes in accordance with bilateral treaties and multilateral conventions.
2.4.4 The two sides appreciated the proposal by the Fourth Ministerial Conference of FOCAC for a FOCAC Legal Forum and the successful holding of two rounds of this forum in Cairo in December 2009 and in Beijing in September 2010 respectively. They agreed to further strengthen the institutional building of the Legal Forum and increase cooperation in the fields of law research, legal services, training of law professionals and the mechanism of non-judicial settlement of disputes.
2.5 Cooperation between China and the African Union and Sub-Regional Organizations in Africa
2.5.1 The two sides recognized the important role of the African Union in safeguarding Africa's peace and stability, promoting Africa's development and advancing the African integration process, and support a bigger role and greater influence of the African Union in international and regional affairs.
2.5.2 Appreciating the comprehensive development of relations between China and the African Union, the two sides agreed to maintain the momentum of high-level exchanges, enhance strategic mutual trust and practical cooperation and increase coordination and cooperation in international and regional affairs to take the relations to higher levels.
2.5.3 The African side expressed appreciation to the Chinese government for the series of measures it had taken for strengthening practical cooperation between China and the African Union, including the construction of the African Union Conference Center and the announcement of the provision of 600 million RMB yuan in free assistance to the African Union within three years starting from 2012, believing that they fully show China's firm support for African integration and Africa's self-enhancement through unity. The two sides agreed to work together to put the relevant measures into practice.
2.5.4 The two sides noted with satisfaction that the Strategic Dialogue Mechanism between China and the African Union progressed smoothly and achieved positive outcomes. They agreed to enrich and improve the mechanism and carry out sub-sessions on (but not limited to) such topics as foreign policy and peace and security affairs under the framework of this mechanism.
2.5.5 The two sides welcomed the African Union Commission's joining FOCAC, and agreed to strengthen dialogue, consultation and cooperation between China and the African Union under the FOCAC framework.
2.5.6 To facilitate the development of relations between the two sides, the Chinese side welcomes the African Union to establish a representative office in Beijing at an appropriate time.
2.5.7 The two sides highlighted the important role of the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) in promoting African development and integration and applauded the cooperation between FOCAC and NEPAD. The Chinese side will increase exchanges and expand cooperation with the NEPAD Planning and Coordinating Agency in a joint effort to promote economic and social development and regional economic integration in Africa.
2.5.8 The Chinese government will continue to strengthen practical cooperation with the African Union and Africa's sub-regional organizations in the fields of the Pan African University and Africa's transnational and trans-regional infrastructure development and will scale up support for Africa's integration.
2.5.9 The Chinese government will continue to increase support for the capacity building of the African Union and sub-regional organizations in Africa through various forms such as human resources development.
2.5.10 The two sides noted the good relations and sustained exchanges between China and Africa's sub-regional organizations, and agreed to establish and improve mechanisms of exchanges and dialogue between the two sides.
2.6 Cooperation in the Fields of Peace and Security
2.6.1 The two sides shared the view that the challenges confronting peace and security in Africa are increasing and reaffirmed their commitment to strengthen cooperation in policy coordination, capacity building, preventive diplomacy, peace keeping operations and post-conflict reconstruction and rehabilitation on the basis of equality and mutual respect to jointly maintain peace and stability in Africa. The Chinese side will continue to support African countries' effort to combat illegal trade and circulation of small arms and light weapons.
2.6.2 The two sides expressed their appreciation of the leading role of African countries and regional organizations in resolving regional issues, and reiterated support for their efforts in independently resolving regional conflicts and strengthening democracy and good governance and oppose the interference in Africa's internal affairs by external forces in pursuit of their own interests.
2.6.3 To enhance cooperation with Africa on peace and security issues, the Chinese side will launch the "Initiative on China-Africa Cooperative Partnership for Peace and Security" and will provide, within the realm of its capabilities, financial and technical support to the African Union for its peace-support operations, the development of the African Peace and Security Architecture, personnel exchanges and training in the field of peace and security and Africa's conflict prevention, management
and resolution and post-conflict reconstruction and development.
2.6.4. The two sides reiterated the significance of increased exchanges and cooperation between the United Nations and the African Union in the field of African peace and security. The Chinese side will continue to support the United Nations in playing a constructive role in helping resolve the conflicts in Africa, take an active part in the peace keeping missions of the United Nations in Africa and intensify communication and coordination with Africa in the UN Security Council.
2.6.5 The two sides appreciated the efforts of the Chinese government's Special Representative for African Affairs in actively engaging in mediation efforts in Africa's hotspots, and welcomed his continued constructive role in Africa's peace and security endeavors.
2.6.6 The African side also appreciated China's counter-piracy efforts in the Gulf of Aden and in waters off the coast of Somaliain accordance with the relevant resolutions of the UN Security Council and encouraged China to increase its efforts in this regard. The two sides reaffirmed that these efforts are conducive to security of the shipping routes in the waters concerned and peace and security in the region. The Chinese side stands ready to strengthen cooperation with Somalia, the African Union and relevant African sub-regional organizations in this field.
- 3. COOPERATION IN INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS
3.1 The two sides will work together to uphold the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence and other universally recognized norms governing international relations and promote a just and equitable international order.
3.2 The two sides will work together to uphold the central role of the United Nations in international affairs and promote multilateralism and democracy in international relations. The two sides reaffirmed the need for necessary reforms of the United Nations and reiterated that the historical injustice against African countries should be redressed and priority should be given to increasing the representation of African countries in the United Nations Security Council and other institutions.
3.3 The two sides expressed concern about the deepening and spreading of the international financial crisis and the grave world economic situation. They urged the international community to pay attention to and minimize the damage caused by the crisis to developing countries, particularly the least developed ones. The two sides will work together to advance the building of a fair, just, inclusive and well-managed international financial system. The two sides stand for greater representation and say of Africa in international financial institutions, such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and support greater dialogue between the G20 and Africa and Africa's participation in G20 affairs. The African side stressed the urgent need to increase the representation of the G20 and other existing international economic mechanisms. The Chinese side expressed its full understanding for this need and stressed that the existing international economic order should be more balanced to ensure the fair representation of Africa.
3.4 The two sides will work together to encourage the international community to earnestly implement the outcomes of the UN High-Level Plenary Meeting on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) held in September 2010 and the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development held in June 2012. The two sides call upon the international community to pay greater attention to the issue of sustainable development in Africa and other developing countries. They also call on the international community, especially developed countries, to fulfill the pledges of assistance and debt relief as quickly as possible, provide more financial support, foreign direct investment and technology transfer and help African countries strengthen capacity building and meet the MDGs at an early date. Furthermore, the two sides call on the international community, under the leading role of the United Nations, to show the political will and commitment to build consensus and agree on the implementation plan of the post-MDG framework of sustainable development.
3.5 The two sides will continue their cooperation on tackling climate change. They jointly call upon the international community to follow the relevant spirit of the United Nations Climate Change Conference successfully held in Durban, South Africa at the end of 2011 and keep to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol, the mandate of the "Bali Roadmap" and the principles of equity and "common but differentiated responsibilities." The two sides will urge the relevant parties to earnestly act on the consensus regarding the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action, the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, the Green Climate Fund, technical mechanism and adaptation, and will make a joint effort to advance the international cooperation on climate change.
3.6 The two sides will work together to push the WTO Doha Development Round negotiations toward early progress and ensure that the interests and concerns of developing countries, particularly the least developed countries, will be truly accommodated. The two sides emphasized that the results achieved in the Doha Round negotiations during the past ten years must be upheld and the single undertaking approach must be observed in the related negotiations.
3.7 The two sides will work together to urge the international community to adopt active and effective coordination measures, stabilize food prices, guard against speculation and price rigging and increase support to African countries in terms of capital, technology, market and capacity building to uphold global food security.
3.8 The two sides will strengthen dialogue and exchanges in the area of human rights. They reaffirmed respect for the principle of universality of human rights and support for all countries in choosing the path of human rights development in the light of their own national conditions with the priority on the right to development, and oppose politicizing human rights issues and setting double standards.
3.9 The two sides will strengthen communication and cooperation on fighting all forms of terrorism. They stand for taking a holistic approach and addressing both the symptoms and root causes of terrorism, and will strive for new progress in international cooperation against terrorism. They support the United Nations and its Security Council in playing a leading role in international counter-terrorism cooperation and helping African countries build counter-terrorism capacity.
- 4. Economic Cooperation
4.1 Agriculture and Food Security
4.1.1 The two sides noticed that the issue of food security is particularly challenging for African countries and stressed that agricultural development is crucial for food security in Africa. The two sides decided to continue to prioritize agriculture and food security in their cooperation.
4.1.2 The two sides spoke positively of the important achievements in the cooperation between the two sides on agriculture and food security over the years.
4.1.3 The two sides commended African countries' progress in implementing a growth-oriented agricultural agenda under the framework of the Comprehensive African Agricultural Development Program (CAADP), and pledged to work together in support of CAADP.
4.1.4 The two sides pledged to engage in agricultural cooperation and exchanges at multiple levels, through multiple channels and in various forms. Efforts will be made to continue to support and help Africa in improving agricultural production, strengthening Africa's capability to ensure food security, and expand cooperation between the two sides in technical exchanges and human resource training in agriculture, agricultural development plan and system building, agricultural processing and promotion of agricultural machinery to create a favorable environment for African countries to realize long-term food security supported by national agricultural production and processing.
The Chinese government has decided to take the following steps:
—Continue to send agro-technology teams to African countries and step up efforts to train African agricultural technicians.
—Send teachers for agricultural vocational education to African countries and help Africa establish an agricultural vocational education system.
—Build more agricultural technology demonstration centers and continue to give play to the function and role of such centers and jointly carry out production demonstration and technology dissemination.
—Help African countries improve the capacity for independent development and provide technical support in grain planting, storage, processing and circulation.
—Encourage Chinese financial institutions to support cooperation between Chinese and African companies in agricultural planting, processing of agricultural products, animal husbandry, fishery and aquaculture.
—Actively support the agricultural development programs of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (UNFAO) in Africa and work with African countries and regional organizations on food security under the framework of the UNFAO "Special Program for Food Security".
—Facilitate access for African agricultural products to the Chinese market.
4.2 Investment and Enterprise Cooperation
4.2.1 The two sides expressed satisfaction with the steady growth of two-way investment between China and Africa, especially the fast increase of China's investment in Africa in broader areas since the Fourth Ministerial Conference of FOCAC in 2009. They maintain that this helps intensify economic links between the two sides and boost local economic development and employment.
4.2.2 The two sides promised to continue to encourage and support mutual investment, and will actively explore new areas and ways to expand investment cooperation. The two sides will continue to push forward negotiations and implementation of bilateral agreements on promoting and protecting investment, foster an enabling investment environment and safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of investors of both sides.
4.2.3 The Chinese government will continue to encourage and support capable and reputable Chinese companies to invest in Africa, and guide Chinese companies to establish processing and manufacturing bases in Africa, help raise the added value of African exports, and increase investment in such service sectors as business services, transport, consulting and management to raise the level and quality of cooperation.
4.2.4 The Chinese side will continue to make good use of the China-Africa Development Fund and gradually scale it up to US$5 billion to strengthen China-Africa cooperation.
4.2.5 The Chinese side will continue to support the development of overseas business cooperation zones established in Africa and, in addition to helping entry of Chinese and African enterprises into the zones, support them in fitting into the strategic focus of the zones to realize faster utilization of the zones so that they contribute towards rapid industrialization and economic restructuring in Africa. China will encourage enterprises joining the zones to increase links with local enterprises and communities, strengthen technology and experience sharing on the shop floor and enhance technology transfer and job creation.
4.2.6 The Chinese side will continue to strengthen cooperation with Africa on technology and management, step up technological support and experience sharing and help African countries enhance their capability for independent development.
4.2.7 The two sides noted the positive outcomes of the Fourth Conference of Chinese and African Entrepreneurs and will further encourage the business communities of the two sides to strengthen cooperation. The Chinese government will continue to guide Chinese enterprises to actively fulfill social responsibilities and give back to the local communities.
4.3 Infrastructure Construction
4.3.1 The two sides agreed to prioritize infrastructure in China-Africa cooperation and strengthen cooperation in transport, telecommunications, radio and television, water conservancy, electricity, energy and other areas of infrastructure development.
4.3.2 To support Africa in achieving connectivity and integration and developing more integrated infrastructure, China and the African Union will establish a cooperative partnership in the design, inspection, financing and management of projects under the Program for Infrastructure Development in Africa and the Presidential Infrastructure Championing Initiative, strengthen relevant dialogue and exchanges, and provide support for the project planning and feasibility study.
4.3.3 The Chinese government will continue to encourage capable Chinese enterprises and financial institutions to participate in transnational and trans-regional infrastructure construction in Africa and provide preferential loans to support infrastructure building in Africa.
4.4.1 The two sides were pleased to see the vigorous growth of trade between China and Africa, particularly its sustained healthy growth despite the international financial crisis, which has given a strong boost to the economic growth of both sides. The two sides highlighted once again the significance of promoting balanced development of China-Africa trade.
4.4.2. The Chinese side decided to implement the "special plan on trade with Africa," and will send investment and trade promotion missions to Africa as appropriate, expand imports from Africa and support the holding of African products exhibitions to help African countries export their competitive goods to China.
4.4.3 The Chinese side will work with Africa to strengthen the building of brands and sales channels of China's exports to Africa, improve the structure and quality of exports to Africa, and protect intellectual property rights.
4.4.4 The Chinese side will actively extend aid-for-trade to African countries, provide technical support for the intensive processing of African agro-produce and industrial raw materials, encourage Chinese enterprises to help increase the added value of Africa's primary products by means of investment, help Africa increase export of products with high added value and intensify exchanges with African countries in trade and industrial policy planning.
4.4.5 The Chinese side promised to further open its market to African countries, and decided to phase in, under the South-South cooperation framework, zero-tariff treatment to products under 97% of all tariff items from the LDCs in Africa having diplomatic relations with China. To ensure the effective implementation of zero-tariff treatment, the Chinese side will establish with African countries a consultation mechanism on the place of origin for goods enjoying zero-tariff treatment and improve the cooperation mechanism to implement zero-tariff treatment.
4.4.6 The two sides agreed to further enhance cooperation in customs, taxation, inspection and quarantine, standards, as well as verification and certification and conclude and implement relevant cooperation agreements. China is ready to establish with African countries cooperation mechanisms on inspection, quarantine and supervision of imports and exports, and strengthen supervision of imports and exports quality and safety, sanitary and phytosanitary regulation and food safety inspection, and, on the precondition of safeguarding the interests of consumers in China and Africa, work actively to facilitate access for Chinese and African agricultural products to each other's markets.
4.4.7 China will help African countries improve facilities for customs and commodity inspection, and provide support to African countries in enhancing trade facilitation, with a view to boosting intra-regional trade.
4.4.8 The two sides agreed to increase trade missions from China to Africa and vice versa and properly handle trade disputes and frictions through friendly consultation under the principle of mutual understanding and mutual accommodation.
4.5 Finance and Banking Sector
4.5.1 The two sides were delighted to see the steady progress in China-Africa financial and banking cooperation in recent years, which has played a positive role in supporting the growth of businesses from both sides and boosting China-Africa business cooperation.
4.5.2 China will expand its cooperation with Africa in investment and financing to help boost Africa's sustainable development. China will provide a credit line of US$20 billion to African countries to mainly support the development of infrastructure, agriculture, manufacturing, and development of small and medium-sized enterprises in Africa.
4.5.3 The two sides applauded the success of the Forum on China-Africa Financial Cooperation and agreed that the financial institutions of both sides will continue to strengthen the consultation mechanism and enhance cooperation.
4.5.4 The Chinese side will strengthen cooperation with the African Development Bank and sub-regional financial organizations, and explore new cooperation mechanisms to support the regional economic integration effort in Africa and the capacity building of African countries.
4.5.5 The two sides will encourage their financial institutions to bolster business exchanges and open more branches in each other's countries on the basis of mutual benefit, and will strengthen personnel exchanges and training between the financial institutions.
4.5.6 The two sides will encourage their financial institutions to provide financing support for China-Africa cooperation in energy, mineral exploitation, agriculture, processing, manufacturing, telecommunications and infrastructure, such as electricity, railroad, highway and port facilities.
4.5.7 The Chinese side has an open attitude towards the currency swap cooperation with the central banks of African countries and encourages businesses of the two sides to settle bilateral trade and make direct investment in local currencies by their own choice. Support will be given to Chinese financial institutions to provide loans in RMB to the African side. The Chinese side has an open attitude towards capable central banks of African countries investing in China's inter-bank bond market and including the RMB into their foreign exchange reserves.
4.5.8 China will encourage Chinese financial institutions to continue to provide financing support for the growth of African SMEs.
4.6 Energy and Resources Cooperation
4.6.1 In view of the strong complementarity and cooperation potential between China and Africa in energy and resources, the two sides will encourage and support joint development and proper use of their energy and resources by enterprises of the two sides. They will consider the establishment of a China-Africa energy forum under the framework of FOCAC to promote China-Africa energy exchanges and cooperation.
4.6.2 While engaging in cooperation, China pays high attention to enhancing African countries' capacity for intensive processing of energy and resource products to raise the added value of these products, helping African countries translate their energy and resources strength into development strength, protecting local eco-environment and promoting the sustainable economic and social development in these countries.
4.6.3 The two sides will actively advance cooperation in clean energy and renewable resources projects in keeping with the principles of mutual benefit and sustainable development.
4.6.4 The two sides agreed to cooperate in underground water exploration, irrigation development, comprehensive planning and management of water resources, disaster prevention and reduction, small basins management and small hydro-power projects and increase exchanges in terms of experts, technology and research findings in the above areas. China will provide financial and technical support for the development of water and energy resources in Africa and facilitate the participation of Chinese companies in relevant activities. The Chinese side will continue to provide assistance for Africa's well-drilling and water supply projects.
4.7 Information and Communications
China will enhance cooperation with the information, communications, radio and television departments of African countries, step up training for African personnel in the information field and actively support and encourage competitive Chinese information, communications, radio and television companies to participate in the building of information infrastructure in Africa and engage in mutually beneficial cooperation with their African counterparts.
4.8.1 The two sides will continue to encourage and support more flights and shipping links to be set up by their airlines and shipping companies, and capable Chinese companies will be encouraged to invest in ports, airports and airlines in Africa.
4.8.2 China will tap its advantages in railway technology to support Africa's efforts in developing and modernizing its railway networks in order to facilitate cost-effective and efficient traffic and trade flows in the continent.
4.9.1 The two sides noted the good progress in China-Africa tourism cooperation in recent years, the fast growing number of tourists between the two sides and, in particular, the visible increase in Chinese tourists visiting Africa and Africa's becoming an emerging tourist destination for Chinese nationals. African countries welcomed such development and will encourage their citizens to travel to China.
4.9.2 The two sides will continue to step up bilateral exchanges and cooperation in tourism and conduct cooperation in information sharing, tourism investment, skills training, tourism safety and quality guarantee.
4.9.3 The two sides will continue to take concrete measures to make travel between the two sides by their nationals more convenient and support tourism promotion activities in each other's countries.
- Part Two of the Beijing Action plan can be accessed here.